Metsovo Zagorohoria Vicos/Vikos Gorge/Canyon
Ioannina, the capital of Epirus, 21 km.(13 miles) northeast of Dodone on Lake Pambotis, may have been in existence as early as the 6th century AD, but the city came into its own only with the occupation of Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium by the Crusaders or Frank in 1204.
Henceforth, Ioannina, or the city of St John, would be a centre of continued Greek resistance, an independent Byzantine state. Michael I Comnenos Ducat of Epirus founded the state of Epirus, whose governmental seat was Arta, and ceded Ioannina to Byzantine refugees.
The city and its island became a thriving Christian centre, which held out against the Ottoman Turks until 1430.
The Ottoman occupation of Ioannina lasted 482 years, during which time the city's famous guilds flourished, and Christians and Jews, respected by the Moslems as monotheistic "People of the Book", were organized according to profession or trade. Even now, Ioannina retains some of this atmosphere of a guild town. The main commercial street is still lined with silversmiths, for Ioannina was once famous for its filigree and niello work and the tradition persists. The capital and Epirus villages in the Pindus such as Syraco and Kalarites, became known for their master jewelers.On the little island in the lake Pambotis, restaurants now vie for customers who are ferried over from Ioannina by motor launch. Live trout, eels crayfish and frogs swim in tanks from which visitors may select their dinners, then sit by the waters of the lake, feeding ducks and swans that glide in the tiny harbor full of working watercraft. Primitive boat-building works still operate on the island, lone masters bending plans over fires to temper the wood.
Metsovo 56 km (35 miles) northeast of Ioannina is one of the most traditional villages of Greece. Located beneath the Katara Pass, on the route between Meteora and western Epirus, this has long been an important site for shepherds and has been made rich by wealth derived from the flocks. While the old fellows on the square are happy to direct visitors to the stunning Tositsa family mansion, now a museum of Epirus life, art forms and the thriving Metsovo Folk Cooperative, which still produces the famous Metsovitico wood carvings, embroideries, weavings and brass work, they will also caution you about wolves down in the valley near the 14th century monastery of Aghios Nikolaos.
Epirus is the cloud -covered crown of Greece, west of the Ionian sea, and the islands of Corfu, Paxi and tiny Antipaxi and east of the long, rocky spine of the towering Pindus mountain range, the region's natural frontier with Thessaly. To the north is Albania, inhospitable and inscrutable behind an uneasy border frequently violated by the region's hardy Vlach and Sarakatsan shepherds and their flocks.
Going from Epirus to Mt Pelion, east of the Pindos, or to western Macedonia, but also traveling through the neighboring Balkan countries, one notices striking similarities in architectural style.
The builders and stonemasons of Epirus were famous in the old days. Originating from the villages north of Aoos river, they traveled all over the area, undertaking constructions in distant places. They built private homes and public buildings, churches, monasteries and bridges. Epirus, along with northwestern Macedonia, has numerous beautiful, arched stone bridges, some of which are still in use.
As there are lots of rivers and streams, there are bridges everywhere; most of them built during the Ottoman period. Unfortunately, today there are very few skilled stonemasons to continue the tradition.
In the dramatically beautiful region of Zagori in Epirus, high in the Pindus mountains, intrepid visitors will still find vast, untouched Mediterranean forests. Away from the herds, beech forests thrive and near the Aspropotamos River, mixed forests of beech, fir and black pine flourish.
Here, on the Voithomatis River, which cuts through the Vikos Gorge in a fierce flood of turquoise, plane trees and saplings shade the forest floor. An interesting characteristic of the area around the Vikos Gorge was the abundance of wandering folk doctors, who claimed to cure many diseases with the many regional wild herbs.
As the straight flute of floyera , becomes an anachronism it and its music, are being documented and preserved for prosperity. As villagers leave the Zagorohoriafor the last time, descending to the warm lowlands that promise an easier life, the Greek government is going in and creating living museums out of the stone and hewn-oak houses. In fact, one plan has been proposed that would make the entire of zagori a sort of rustic theme park, to which admission would be charged. Voithomatis river rushes past the foot of the Vikos Gorge cliff face . Attached like a stylize atop the rock perches the little monastery of Aristi Spiliotissa, the Exalted Virgin of the Cave. Here cherry trees blossom in spring.
In summer their fruit tempts the European brown bear to descend from higher ground. The chamois and wolf are also infrequent visitors.
The lynx is another of Europe s endangered species, living today only in Spain, and perhaps in this gorge.
The Sus scrofa, or wild boar, is sighted more often and the Egyptian vulture soars in the clear air above the deep chasm.
Monasteries here such as Aghia Paraskevi and Aghios Athanasios, are being lovingly renovated in authentic Zagorian style and the villages of the Zagorohoria are coming alive again after a century of decline as the sons and daughters of Zagorians come to realize they have a unique cultural heritage worthy of preservation.
Traveling through the 40-odd villages lying between Ioannina, Konitsa and the Albanian border, one traverses some of the most spectacular scenery in Europe. In fact according to mountaineer Konstantinos Vassiliou, the Vikos Gorge is the largest in Europe and Sheep's Gulf, where the Vikos Gorge bisects the Gamila massif, with its absolute vertical of over 400 metres (1,312feet), is the world's second highest sheer drop.
Apart from the natural beauty of the region, some of most wonderful villages of Greece are scattered here.
The Zagoria are remnants of a flourishing culture of the past. The area was at its zenith in the 17th century, having gained some sort of advanced autonomy from the Ottoman rulers.
Many Zagorgiani emigrated overseas, mostly to Russia and Romania, where they prospered greatly. Others traded in the Balkans, and accumulated large fortunes.
Thus, with their contributions, they helped their homeland and the war of Greek Independence. Education was greatly encouraged in Zagoria, and women studied along with men.
Villages like Papingo provided a himathia, or winter refuge, for the shepherds and settled Sarakatsani, the former Skinites, or tent-dwellers. Today, the villages of Megalo and Mikro Papingo, on the slopes of Mount Timfri, lie with in the territory of the protected - Aoos National Park.
The area may be depopulated today, but the beautiful large private homes and public buildings are a testament to the flourishing past. Their grey, heavy stone roofs rise over the thick vegetation. Stone-paved streets cross the villages. The houses are built with stones and wood, and their walls are thick to withstand the harsh weather conditions and the winter snow. Stone-built walls surround the yards, which are guarded by beautiful, heavy, wooden gates. Fortunately, many of these buildings now have been restored and modernized properly, and several have been turned into hotels and pensions, retaining the traditional style. What is more important is that the area has kept its serenity and is rarely crowded with people